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Selasa, 02 Juli 2013

PASSIVE VOICE / KALIMAT PASIF

 PASSIVE VOICE / KALIMAT PASIF

To be + Verb 3   menyatakan =  Di / Ter

Active
Professor Villa gives Jorge a task.
Active
Professor Villa gave Jorge a task, yesterday
Passive
A task was given to Jorge by Professor Villa.
Passive
Jorge was given a task.
Interrogative
Was task given to Jorge ?
Negative
Jorge was not given a task by Professor Villa

Contoh Kalimat Stative Passive

I am interested in Javanese art. (Artinya: Saya tertarik dengan kesenian Jawa)
He is satisfied with his job. (Artinya: Dia terpuaskan dengan pekerjaannya)
Anna is married to Alex. (Artinya: Anna dinikahkan dengan Alex)

Ketiga contoh kalimat di atas adalah bentuk dari stative passive. Dari ketiga kalimat pasif di atas tidak ada yang menggunakan frase "by". Supaya lebih jelas lagi, mari kita bandingkan contoh kalimat di bawah ini.

Fact: I locked the door five minutes ago.
(Artinya: Saya mengunci pintu 5 menit yang lalu)
    
Passive voice: The door was locked by me five minutes ago.
(Artinya: Pintunya dikunci oleh saya 5 menit yang lalu)

Stative  Passive: Now the door is locked.
(Artinya: Sekarang pintunya terkunci)

Contoh Kalimat Stative Passive lainnya:

Fact
Passive Voice
Stative Passive
Shelly broke the window.
The window was broken by Shelly.
Now the window is broken.
She rejects my love.
My love is rejected by her.
My love is rejected.
Andy repaired my car two days ago.
My car was repaired by Andy two days ago.
My car was repaired two days ago.

Jadi kita dapat menyimpulkan bahwa pada passive voice (kalimat pasif) kita menggunakan frase "by" (yang artinya: oleh). Sedangkan pada kalimat stative passive, bentuk penyusunan kalimatnya sama seperti kalimat pasif hanya saja tidak ada frase "by". Dan bentuk past participle (Verb 3) nya berfungsi sebagai adjective. Perhatikan lagi contoh kalimat di bawah ini supaya lebih jelas:

It is hot in this room because the window is closed.
(Artinya: Hawanya panas di ruangan ini karena jendelanya ditutup)

The door to this room is shut.
(Artinya: Pintu menuju ruangan ini dikunci)

The lights in this room are turned off.
(Artinya: Lampu-lampu di ruangan ini dimatikan)
We couldn’t go any farther. The car is trapped in the mud.
(Artinya: Kita tidak dapat pergi/ berjalan lebih jauh. Mobilnya terjebak di lumpur)

Don’t tell your brother! His birthday present is hidden in the closet.
(Artinya: Jangan katakana pada kakakmu! Hadiah ulang tahunnya disembunyikan di lemari)

PENTING:
Adapula beberapa kalimat yang mengandung unsur penggunaan ungkapan kiasan (idiomatic) dari bentuk pasif, contohnya:

I don’t know where I am. I am lost.
(Artinya: Saya tidak tahu dimana saya sekarang. Saya tersesat)

I can’t find my purse. It is gone.
(Artinya: Saya tidak dapat menemukan dompet saya. Dompetnya hilang)

I am finished with my work.
I am done with my work.
(Artinya: Saya sudah selesai dengan pekerjaan/ tugas saya)

Ke-empat contoh kalimat di atas adalah dalam bentuk pasif semua, bukan active voice(kalimat aktif) walaupun beberapa kalimat tersebut pada kata kerja (verb)-nya tidak diawali dengan awal "-ter" atau "-di" jika diterjemahkan ke Bahasa Indonesia.

Contoh Passive Voice
Tenses
Active
Passive
Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future
will
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future
be going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous
will
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfect
will
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous
will
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the Past
Would
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

Exercise 1.
Changes into passive voice form

  1. My father plants vegetables
  2. My sister bought falk tales book last night
  3. Students receive scolarship, today
  4. chickens eat corn in the yard
  5. He opened his shop this morning
  6. They watched colossal movie yesterday
  7. He reads a chemist book
  8. Amin did a mathematic test
  9. We filled the register form
  10. My uncle rides a horse around the lake

Exercise 2.
Changes into passive voice form

Tenses
Active
Passive
Simple Present
Tommy washes the trousers
............................................................
Present Continuous
Sinta is reading the newspaper,now
............................................................
Simple Past
Toni fixed the bicycle.
............................................................
Past Continuous
The tourist was asking me  when my brother called me
............................................................
Present Perfect
Many student have arrived to airlangga museum
............................................................
Present Perfect Continuous
My uncle has been working in this company for 5 years
............................................................
Past Perfect
Mr. Doni had taught in many college before he is sent to Australia to study in a University
............................................................
Past Perfect Continuous
My teacher had been explaining that lesson for two week before student practiced it.
............................................................
Simple Future
will
We will finish the class by 02:00 PM
............................................................
Simple Future
be going to
Sandy is going to visit penataran temple, tomorrow
............................................................
Future Continuous
will
Johan will be cleaning the room. At 8:00 AM today
............................................................
Future Continuous
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, Johan is going to be attending the meeting
............................................................
Future Perfect
will
I will have gone home before the midnight.
............................................................
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have arrived  here before the 10.00 PM
............................................................
Future Perfect Continuous
will
The councils will have been arranging the rules for over two week by the time Mr. Major arrived from abroad
............................................................
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The councils is going to have been arranging the rules for over two week by the time Mr. Major arrived from abroad.
............................................................
Used to
Jerry used to buy the train ticket.
............................................................
Would Always
My mother would always cook the friedrice.
............................................................
Future in the Past
Would
I understood John would finish that problem
............................................................
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
............................................................

Exercise 3
The following sentences are written in the passive voice. Rewrite them using active-voice verbs. (Answers may vary.)

1. Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony was performed masterfully by the university orchestra.

2. Quarterly reports will be submitted along with statistics charting sales for each product.

3. Three new procedures for assessing product safety have been recommended by the company’s external consultants.

4. The report has been carefully reviewed by a team of unbiased individuals who were not part of the original project.

5. An attempt was made to ensure that all item types were sampled proportionally.

ANSWERS

1. The university orchestra masterfully performed Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony.

2. Regional sales representatives will submit quarterly reports along with statistics charting sales for each product.

3. The company’s external consultants recommended three new procedures for assessing product safety.

4. A team of unbiased individuals who were not part of the original project has carefully reviewed the report.

5. Researchers made an attempt to ensure that all item types were sampled proportionally.