Jumat, 17 Mei 2013



A.      Coordinate Conjunction  : digunakan menghubungkan  2 induk kalimat dan untuk  parallel structure
1.       and, or , but                               :  menghubungkan 2 induk kalimat
-          Mary opened the door and (she) greeted  her guest
2.       Between....... and ........             :  diantara..... dan......
3.       From......to........                        :  dari....... ke.......
4.       Both...... and ........                    :  Both Shinta and Maya are beautiful  ( keduanya...)
5.       Not only ...... but also.....          :  Deasy not only works but also stays here ( tdk hanya ... tapi juga....)
6.       Either .....or.....                         :  I will take either chemistry or physics  next semester
7.       Neither ..... nor .....                   :  Neither Budi nor Dedy loves Cintya
B.      Non Coordinate Conjunction  : digunakan untuk menghubungkan induk kalimat dan anak kalimat
1.       Adjectives clause , biasa diterjemahkan “yang”          : who, whom, which, whose,that
The girl whom I love, loves my friend, Ari who works in the hospital is my friend
2.       Adverb clause berfungsi penghubung waktu               : after,before, when (ketika), while             ( sementara) , as (ketika), by the time that (pada saat), since (sejak), until (sampai), as soon as     ( segera setelah) , once (pada suatu ketika),  whenever ( bilamana), afterwards (setelah itu), later(setelah itu), then (kemudian) etc.
-          After I ate dinner, I took a walk                 (conjunction)
-          I ate dinner.  Afterwards I took a walk    ( transition)
-          After eating dinner, I took a walk              (preposition)
3.       Sebab- akibat :(karena)  because,= since, = for, = as, = as long as, = in as much as + S + P
Because I am tired, I won`t go fishing =  since I am tired, I won`t go fishing
4.       Sebab- akibat : so  + (adj/adv) that.....
I was so tired that I fell asleep
5.       Sebab- akibat : such + Noun + that.... (sehingga) S + P
I don`t have such a car that I can`t join the race
6.       Sebab- akibat : because of + Noun   = Due to + Noun
Because of the cold weather, we stay at home = Due to the cold weather, we stay at home
7.       because + S + P   = Due to the fact that + S + P
Because  the weather  is cold, we stay at home = Due to the fact that the weather  is cold, we stay at home
8.       Therefore = consequently ( oleh karena itu) : Ali didn`t study. Therefore He failed the test
9.       upon + Verb ing =when + S+ Verb II = on + verb ing ( saat, ketika, waktu)
-          upon reaching the age of 21, I received my inheritance
-          when  I  reached the age of 21, I received my inheritance
-          on reaching the age of 21, I received my inheritance
10.   berikut maknanya sama :
Adverb of clause      : Even though, although, though (walaupun)    pola : conj.  S+P, S+P
-          event though it was cold, I went swimming
-          although it was cold, I went swimming
-          though it was cold, I went swimming

Conjunction               : but....anyway,  but...still,  yet... still    
Pola : conj.  S+P, S+P  / S+P, conj. S+P
-          it was cold, but  I went swimming anyway
-          it was cold, but I still went swimming
-          it was cold, yetstill went swimming

Transitions                 :  nevertheless, nonetheless, however (namun, bagaimanapun)
 Pola : S+P. Trans, S+P ( ada 2 titik)
-          it was  cold. Nevertheless, I went  swimming
-          it was  cold. Nonetheless, I went  swimming
-          it was  cold. however, I went  swimming
moreover, further more, in addition  makna = also (juga)
-          This town has many beautiful tourist objects. Moreover, it is clean
Other wise (jika tidak)
-          I always eat breakfast. Otherwise, I will get hungry

Prepositions              : despite, inspite of  (meskipun)       Pola  : Prep +N/Ving  S+P
-          I went  swimming  despite the cold weather
-          I went  swimming  in spite of  the cold weather
In addition to, besides = disamping
-          In addition to many  tourist object s, this town is clean
-          Besides  many  tourist object s, this town is clean  ( besides : disamping dlm makna luas)
Only if  /providing that /provided that
Only if you give me the money, I will go
Unless (jika tidak)
Unless it rains tomorrow, I will visit her

Direct opposition
-          Mary is rich, whereas  John is poor ( sebaliknya, padahal, sedangkan)
-          Mary is rich, but  John is poor
-          Mary is rich, on the other hand  John is poor

Exercise :

  1. ... the meeting. Ms. Sinta missed several phone call.
A.      Although                     B. Because                          C. In spite of                       D. during

  1. ... she left the ship, the purser signed out
A.      For                                 B. That                                  C. And                          D. before

  1. `The restourant is open on weekends, ... not on holiday
A.  but                                   B. or                                       C. either                      D. so

  1. Our latest advertising packages includes videos.... brochures
A.  but                                   B. or                                       C. either                      D. and

  1. ... it was Mr. Andi`s birthday. His staff took him to lunch
A.  although                        B. during                              C. because                        D. that

  1. All cabin attendants must lock the cabin door... leaving the rooms
A.  afterwards                   B. after                                 C. Later than                      D. late

  1. You should register for the seminar.... you attend
A.  while                               B. before                             C. Nor                             D. and

  1. ... it was late, Ms. Santi stayed to finish her work
A.  although                        B. while                                  C. during                          D. since

  1. ... 7.00 PM, the subway  becomes very crowded
A.  when                              B. after                                 C. since                            D. until

  1. The  operator doesn`t remember receiving a fax from the Bandung office... from Bogor office
A.  and                                  B. or                                   C. either                           D. but

Error analysis

  1. A small service fee but monthly monitoring charge will be added to your account
  A                        B                   C                        D
  1. A person  he  forgets names will not make many friends
              A        B              C            D
  1. Give your name nor the name of the person you are seeing to the receptionist at the front desk
                        A                   B                                      C                         D
  1. We will not release the report while the test result are verified
             A                   B         C                         D
  1. Until that item is currently out of stock,we can order it for you                                                                A                   B                    C                  D