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Senin, 27 Mei 2013

SUBJUNCTIVES


SUBJUNCTIVE  1  (kalimat Pengharapan)

 menyatakan suatu harapan yang tidak terjadi /contrary to the fact
as if        : seolah-olah
if only    : sepertinya
wish
would rather
as though   :  seolah-olah, berpura-pura
it`s time


A.      Present subjunctive     
Harapan            : menggunakan past tense
Kenyataan         : menggunakan present
I wish I met  Mike                                       fact : I don`t meet him
If only I were a doctor                                 fact : I am a teacher
It`s time, we all went home                           fact : we all don`t go home
I would rather you told me the  news            fact : you don`t tell me the news

        Pada subjunctive :  to be menggunakan were

Except       :   Would rather  + V1  than ....   eg. I would rather save the money than buy car
                      Would rather THAT + V2      eg. I would rather that she went to movie

B.      Past Subjunctive           
Harapan             : menggunakan past perfect       ( had + V3)
Kenyataan          : menggunakan past tense          (V2)
He looks tired as if he had worked hard              fact: he did not work hard
Mira wished she had not come late again  fact: she came late again   ket.:come-came-come
I wish she had been here                                     fact : she wasn`t here
I would rather you had told me the news             fact : you didn`t told me the news
If only he hadn`t asked me                                  fact : he asked me


SUBJUNCTIVE  2  (suggestion/advice : saran / nasihat)
Subjunctive + THAT + Verb 1 / to infinitive
VERBS
Advise                : menasehati
Demand              : menuntut, meminta
Prefer                 : lebih suka
Require              : memerlukan, mensyaratkan, mengharuskan
Decree               : memutuskan/menitahkan
Request              : memohon, meminta
Urge                  : mendesak
Command          : memerintah
Move                 : mengusulkan, menggerakan
Suggest              : menyarankan
Order                 : memerintah
Recommend       : menganjurkan
Desire                : menginginkan

The teacher requires that all students study hard
                                                            V1
The judge insisted that he is punished severely (dgn berat)
                                       Present

ADJECTIVES ( impersonal it)
Necessary          : perlu,penting
Urgent                : mendesak
Important           : penting
Obligatory          : keharusan
Imperative          : keharusan
Suggested           : disarankan
Recommended    : dianjurkan
Proposed            : disusulkan

It is necessary that he get good education
                                    V1
It has been proposed that we start  from the beginning
                                               V1
It was important that you know the address
                                          V1

NOUN
Suggestion                          : saran
Recommendation                : saran, anjuran
Proposal                             : usulan
Motion                               : usulan

He gives her a recommendation that she is invited
There is a motion that the decision will be cancelled
She puts  a proposal that she get a scholarship

Exercise :

1.       Many architects prefer that a dome is used to roof building that need to conserve floor space
  A                                                        B                                              C                        D
Answer :  B     harusnya Verb 1  USE,    pola  : subjuntive (prefer)  That..... V1
2.       It is  necessary ........ the approaches to a bridges, the road design and alignment in such a way as to best accomodate the expected traffic  flow over and under it                                                                                                   
       APlan               B. To plan                            C. Planning                          D. the plan
      Answer : B   titik-titik diisi oleh klausa that atau to infinitive  karena diawali bentuk subjuntive impersonal  it.
3.       Less moderate members of conggress are insisting that changes in the social security system .....made
       A.      Will                 B. Are                                    C. Being                        D. be
      Answer :  D  bagian titik-titik perlu diisi Verb setelah clause THAT ( subjunctive) isinya tidak boleh auxiliary modal